वरुणग्रह

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वरुणग्रह ♆
Neptune from Voyager 2
Neptune from Voyager 2 with Great Dark Spot at left
Discovery
Discovered byUrbain Le Verrier
John Couch Adams
Johann Galle
Discovery dateSeptember 23, 1846[१]
Designations
Pronunciation/[invalid input: 'en-us-Neptune.ogg']ˈnɛptn/[२]
AdjectivesNeptunian
Orbital characteristics[७][८]
Epoch J2000
Aphelion4,553,946,490 km
30.44125206 AU
Perihelion4,452,940,833 km
29.76607095 AU
4,503,443,661 km
30.10366151 AU
Eccentricity0.011214269
60,190[३] days
164.79 years
89,666 Neptune solar days[४]
367.49 day[५]
5.43 km/s[५]
267.767281°
Inclination1.767975° to Ecliptic
6.43° to Sun’s equator
0.72° to Invariable plane[६]
131.794310°
265.646853°
Known satellites13
Physical characteristics
Equatorial radius
24,764 ± 15 km[९][१०]
3.883 Earths
Polar radius
24,341 ± 30 km[९][१०]
3.829 Earths
Flattening0.0171 ± 0.0013
7.6408×109 km2[३][१०]
14.98 Earths
Volume6.254×1013 km3[५][१०]
57.74 Earths
Mass1.0243×1026 kg[५]
17.147 Earths
Mean density
1.638 g/cm3[५][१०]
11.15 m/s2[५][१०]
1.14 g
23.5 km/s[५][१०]
0.6713 day[५]
16 h 6 min 36 s
Equatorial rotation velocity
2.68 km/s
9,660 km/h
28.32°[५]
North pole right ascension
ढाँचा:RA[९]
299.3°
North pole declination
42.950°[९]
Albedo0.290 (bond)
0.41 (geom.)[५]
Surface temp. min mean max
1 bar level 72 K[५]
0.1 bar (10 kPa) 55 K[५]
8.02 to 7.78[५][११]
2.2–2.4″[५][११]
Atmosphere[५]
19.7 ± 0.6 km
Composition by volume
80±3.2%Hydrogen (H2)
19±3.2%Helium
1.5±0.5%Methane
~0.019%Hydrogen deuteride (HD)
~0.00015%Ethane
Ices:
Ammonia
Water
Ammonium hydrosulfide(NH4SH)
Methane (?)
हब्बल अन्तरिक्ष दुरविनले खिचिया बरुणको तस्बीर

वरुणग्रह (प्रतीक: ♆) सौर्यमण्डलको सूर्यबठेहै आठौं ग्रह हो। यो ग्रह लै एक ग्यास् पिण्ड हो जइका वरिपरि चारवटा मुस्किलले धेखिन्या खालका घेराअन छन्। Urbain Le Verrier र John Couch Adams लाई वरुण ग्रहको आविश्कारकको रूपमी चिनिन्छ। ये ग्रहलाई पृथ्वीबठे बाइनाकुलर रे दूरदर्शकयन्त्रका मद्दतले सजिलै हेद्दु सकिन्छ। भोयजर २ नामक अन्तरिक्षयानले सन् १९८९ माई पत्तालगाया अनसार येईमा "The Dark Spot" नाम गर्याको आँधी रयाः छ। यद्यपी सन् १९९४ माइ उक्त आँधी धेखिया थिएन्। बरुण ग्रहका १३ वटा उपग्रहअन छन्। ती मध्ये सबैहै ठूलो उपग्रह Triton हो, जो उपग्रह वरुणग्रहको एकमात्र गोलो उपग्रह हो। Trition पृथ्वीको चन्द्रमा है केही नानो छ। अङ्ग्रेजीमाइ येईलाई नेप्च्युन भणिन्छ, नेप्च्युन, प्राचीन रोमन धर्मको प्रमुख देवताअन मध्ये एउटा थ्यो। उनी समुद्रका देवता थ्याः। उनकै समतुल्य प्राचीन यूनानी धर्मका देवता थ्याः पोसाइडन। उनराइ नामबठेहइ सौर्य परिवारको आठौँ ग्रहको नाम नेप्च्युन राखियाः हो।

सन्दर्भअन[सम्पादनस्रोत सम्पादन]

  1. Hamilton, Calvin J. (August 4, 2001). "Neptune". Views of the Solar System. Retrieved 2007-08-13.
  2. Walter, Elizabeth (April 21, 2003). Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53106-3.
  3. ३.० ३.१ उद्दरण त्रुटी: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named fact2
  4. Seligman, Courtney. "Rotation Period and Day Length". Retrieved 2009-08-13.
  5. ५.०० ५.०१ ५.०२ ५.०३ ५.०४ ५.०५ ५.०६ ५.०७ ५.०८ ५.०९ ५.१० ५.११ ५.१२ ५.१३ ५.१४ Williams, David R. (September 1, 2004). "Neptune Fact Sheet". NASA. Retrieved 2007-08-14.
  6. "The MeanPlane (Invariable plane) of the Solar System passing through the barycenter". 2009-04-03. Archived from the original on 2009-04-20. Retrieved 2009-04-10. (produced with Solex 10 written by Aldo Vitagliano; see also Invariable plane)
  7. Yeomans, Donald K. (July 13, 2006). "HORIZONS System". NASA JPL. Retrieved 2007-08-08.—At the site, go to the "web interface" then select "Ephemeris Type: Elements", "Target Body: Neptune Barycenter" and "Center: Sun".
  8. Orbital elements refer to the barycentre of the Neptune system, and are the instantaneous osculating values at the precise J2000 epoch. Barycentre quantities are given because, in contrast to the planetary centre, they do not experience appreciable changes on a day-to-day basis from to the motion of the moons.
  9. ९.० ९.१ ९.२ ९.३ P. Kenneth, Seidelmann (2007). "Report of the IAU/IAGWorking Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements". Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy. 90 (3): 155–180. doi:10.1007/s10569-007-9072-y. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help)
  10. १०.० १०.१ १०.२ १०.३ १०.४ १०.५ १०.६ Refers to the level of 1 bar (100 kPa) atmospheric pressure
  11. ११.० ११.१ उद्दरण त्रुटी: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ephemeris

भाइराकडिअन[सम्पादनस्रोत सम्पादन]