सामग्रीमा जानुहोस्


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This template sets up a manual taxobox, as a right-side infobox table setting out the biological classification (taxonomy) for a group of living things. For guide to automated taxoboxes, see WP:Automated taxobox system/intro.

Although with a choice of over 160 parameters, the implementation is complicated, it is relatively simple to use. Most parameters are optional, so if a particular entry is not relevant for your case, just leave it out. See below section "All parameters" for a complete list.

This guide has come out of WikiProject Tree of life.

Usage[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Note that parameters in this template are case-sensitive.

| name               = 
| image              = 
| image_upright      =
| image_alt          = 
| image_caption      = 
| image2             = 
| image2_upright     =
| image2_alt         = 
| image2_caption     = 
| regnum             = [[Plantae]] (or...)
| divisio            = 
| classis            = 
| ordo               = 
| familia            = 
| genus              = 
| species            = 
| binomial           = 
| binomial_authority = 
| range_map          = <!--optional map – also range map2, 3 or 4 -->
| range_map_upright    = 
| range map_alt      = 
| range_map_caption  = 
| <!--or 115 other parameters-->

Colors are automatically assigned based on the table below.

Viruses rgb(250,250,190) also Viroids
Bacteria rgb(220,235,245)
Archaea rgb(195,245,250) also Nanoarchaeota (Nanarchaeota), Korarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota
Eukaryota rgb(245,215,255) For eukaryotes with no other colour defined, including Excavata, Amoebozoa and Opisthokonta
Animalia rgb(235,235,210)
Fungi rgb(145,250,250)
Archaeplastida rgb(180,250,180) also Plantae and Viridiplantae
SAR rgb(200,250,80) also Chromalveolata
incertae sedis rgb(250,240,230)
Ichnotaxa rgb(215,240,210)
Ootaxa rgb(250,250,220)

Quick start and examples[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Animals[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Animal species[स्रोत सम्पादन]
Asian golden cat
Orange cat sitting with head up and eyes almost closed.
वैज्ञानिक वर्गीकरण
C. temminckii
Binomial name
Catopuma temminckii
(Vigors & Horsfield, 1827)
| name               = 
| image              = 
| image_alt          = 
| image_caption      = 
| regnum             = [[Animalia]]
| phylum             = 
| classis            = 
| ordo               = 
| familia            = 
| genus              = 
| species            = 
| binomial           = 
| binomial_authority = 
Animal higher taxon[स्रोत सम्पादन]
Underwater humpback whale diving, with front flipper extended.
Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae
वैज्ञानिक वर्गीकरण

Gray, 1864


| regnum            = [[Animalia]]
| phylum            = 
| classis           = 
| ordo              = 
| familia           = 
| genus             = 
| genus_authority   = 
| subdivision_ranks = 
| subdivision       = 

Plants[स्रोत सम्पादन]

The majority of plants are angiosperms ("flowering plants"). Wikipedia:WikiProject Plants consensus is to use the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group's APG III classification system for angiosperms. The APG III system does not have formally named divisions or classes, but includes several hierarchically nested, informally named clades. The hierarchy of informally named clades is presented by using parameters such as |unranked divisio= in place of formal rank parameters. Articles on non-flowering plants (e.g. conifers, ferns) should continue to use formal divisions and classes in the Taxobox.

Flowering plant species[स्रोत सम्पादन]
Magnolia virginiana
White flower surrounded by long green leaves.
Magnolia virginiana
वैज्ञानिक वर्गीकरण
M. virginiana
Binomial name
Magnolia virginiana
| name               = 
| image              = 
| image_alt          = 
| image_caption      = 
| regnum             = [[Plantae]]
| unranked_divisio   = [[Angiosperms]]
| unranked_classis   = 
| unranked_ordo      = 
| ordo               = 
| familia            = 
| genus              = 
| species            = 
| binomial           = 
| binomial_authority = 
Flowering plant higher taxon[स्रोत सम्पादन]
Cluster of oak leaves and acorns.
Foliage and acorns of the pedunculate oak, Quercus robur
वैज्ञानिक वर्गीकरण


See List of Quercus species.

| image             = 
| image_alt         = 
| image_caption     = 
| regnum            = [[Plantae]]
| unranked_divisio  = [[Angiosperms]]
| unranked_classis  = 
| unranked_ordo     = 
| ordo              = 
| familia           = 
| genus             = 
| genus_authority   = 
| subdivision_ranks = 
| subdivision       = 

Parameters[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Name[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Provided under this parameter should be the single most common vernacular name when one is in widespread use, or a single current scientific name otherwise.

The name parameter should not be used to incorporate more than one name. It is only a header and not meant to be an inclusive "names" field. One will suffice. Please assess the relevant literature in deciding which.

Color[स्रोत सम्पादन]

The color is automatically assigned based on the entry for a number of ranks from |phylum= upwards (see Template:Taxobox); there is normally no need to specify it manually, although |color_as= can be used.

Viruses rgb(250,250,190) also Viroids
Bacteria rgb(220,235,245)
Archaea rgb(195,245,250) also Nanoarchaeota (Nanarchaeota), Korarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota
Eukaryota rgb(245,215,255) For eukaryotes with no other colour defined, including Excavata, Amoebozoa and Opisthokonta
Animalia rgb(235,235,210)
Fungi rgb(145,250,250)
Archaeplastida rgb(180,250,180) also Plantae and Viridiplantae
SAR rgb(200,250,80) also Chromalveolata
incertae sedis rgb(250,240,230)
Ichnotaxa rgb(215,240,210)
Ootaxa rgb(250,250,220)

Classification[स्रोत सम्पादन]

As noted above, the classification section includes some or all of the following:

| regnum  = 
| phylum  = 
| classis = 
| ordo    = 
| familia = 
| genus   = 
| species = 

Each entry corresponds to a containing group, except for the last, which should be the group under consideration. Note the entries use the Latin names for the ranks, to make porting between Wikipedias easier. Thus the above correspond to the kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.

Red wood ant
वैज्ञानिक वर्गीकरण
F. rufa
Binomial name
Formica rufa
Linnaeus, 1761

Taxoboxes should include all major ranks above the taxon described in the article, plus minor ranks that are important to understanding the classification of the taxon described in the article, or which are discussed in the article. Other minor ranks should be omitted.

For example, in the taxobox for the genus Formica, it's appropriate to include entries for tribe and subfamily, since those are an aid to understanding how Formica relates to other genera in the family Formicidae. But it wouldn't be appropriate to include the superorder Endopterygota, since all genera of ants are in that superorder; it isn't particularly interesting at this level.

Another example is the subfamily Bambusoideae, the bamboos. This subfamily probably should be mentioned in the taxobox of every bamboo species, since it is a major grouping in this context, despite its minor rank.

Minor ranks are included in the same way as major ranks, for example:

| classis    = ...
| subclassis = ...
| superordo  = ...
| ordo       = ...

Note that species and subspecies should be given using the abbreviated forms of their name — e.g. H. sapiens, H. s. sapiens. The epithets should not be given by themselves. The full form of the species or subspecies name is given in the binomial or trinomial section.

See #All parameters for a complete list.

Classification status[स्रोत सम्पादन]

With the |classification_status= parameter, it is possible to introduce extra text within parentheses after "Scientific classification". For example, |classification_status=disputed will produce "Scientific classification (disputed)". See Baranophrys for a current example where this parameter is used. This parameter should only be used when the "Scientific classification" text would be misleading without it.

Divisions and sections[स्रोत सम्पादन]

These ranks have different meanings in zoology and botany.

In botany:

  • Use divisio for division (a rank above class and below kingdom)
  • Use sectio for section (a rank above species and below genus)

Note: Certain very large genera, e.g. Rhododendron include subsections

In zoology:

  • Use zoodivisio for division (a rank above family and below order)
  • Use zoosectio for section (a rank above family and below order)
Unranked taxa[स्रोत सम्पादन]

For each major taxon from family to phylum, you can add an unranked entry to the taxobox. The entry unranked_X appears above rank X, for example unranked_superfamilia appears above family and superfamily and below order, suborder, infraorder, etc.:

| ordo                  = 
| unranked_superfamilia = 
| familia               = 

For animals and non-flowering plants, use unranked taxa sparingly. The need to include unranked taxa generally indicates that you are following phylogenetic nomenclature. It is usually better to abbreviate the classification to the major ranks and then discuss the classification in more detail in the article.

Unranked taxa of flowering plants[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Flowering plants (angiosperms) make frequent use of unranked taxa. The APG III system of classification used for flowering plants on Wikipedia does not have formally named ranks above order – e.g. divisions, classes, subclasses – but includes several hierarchically nested, informally named and unranked clades. For flowering plants the taxobox should include |unranked_divisio=Angiosperms in place of |divisio=, |unranked_classis= in place of |classis=, and possibly also |unranked_subclassis= in place of |subclassis=. Flowering plant taxoboxes may often include three to four informal hierarchical groups above the rank of order, making the use of |unranked_ordo= necessary, which sorts itself just above |ordo= where a formally named order is displayed. The unranked parameters only include ranks in their parameter names, such as "unranked divisio" to allow the editor to place content hierarchically; no approximation of rank is intended by the use of these parameter names. For flowering plant articles using the APG III system of classification, the regular parameters including |divisio=, |classis=, and |subclassis= should not be used or it will display between these unranked APG III clades.

To comply with #Classification above and its advice on the inclusion of major ranks, the following are considered major ranks in APG III and currently included in the appropriate flowering plant taxoboxes:

Note: The rosids contain two clades, the fabids (also known as eurosids I) and malvids (also known as eurosids II), and the asterids contain two further clades, the lamiids (euasterids I) and campanulids (euasterids II). These are considered to be minor ranks and are only to be displayed on the articles on orders or families they immediately contain.

A taxobox for a flowering plant will thus generally include the following parameters:

| regnum             = [[Plantae]]
| unranked_divisio   = [[Angiosperms]]
| unranked_classis   =
| unranked_ordo      =
| ordo               = 
Viruses[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Viruses follow a slightly different system. They are not placed in taxa above the rank of order, and instead are treated in seven groups based on the type of nucleic acid they contain, referred to by the Roman numerals i to vii. These can be included in the taxobox using the |virus group= parameter. This also changes the link from scientific to virus classification, so it should not appear on boxes for non-viruses, even if it is left blank.

| virus_group = iv

Bold/italic markup[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Italicization must be done manually in all parameters. If the entry for genus, species or binomial (with manually added italics) matches the page title,[note १] then the name of the taxobox and the title of the page will be italicized. Note that if the |name= parameter is used the page title will not be automatically italicized. The taxobox's name will be set to exactly what is specified in |name= – italics must be specified manually in this case.

Genus, species, and subspecies should be italicized whenever used, as is the biological standard. For instance, we talk about the genus Homo, the species Homo sapiens, and the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens.

  • In botany, it is important to include the rank for taxa below species. The rank is not italicized, e.g. Genus species subsp. subspecies var. variety.
  • Some bacteria that have been characterized but not formally named are given Candidatus names. These should be written in the form Candidatus Genus species, rather than italicized normally.

Higher taxa like families may or may not be italicized in different publications. The prevalent standard for Wikipedia is not to italicize them, except in the case of viruses and other infectious particles.

Bolding is used to indicate the subject of the article. The |name=, |binomial=, and |trinomial= parameters bold automatically. In the placement section – |regnum= through |species= – the final taxon should be bolded, as well as any higher groups that only include the final taxon. See green sulfur bacteria for an example.

Subdivisions[स्रोत सम्पादन]

वैज्ञानिक वर्गीकरण

  • U. angustifolia
  • U. ardens
  • U. atrichocaulis
  • U. atrovirens
  • U. cannabina
  • U. chamaedryoides
  • U. dioica
  • U. dubia
  • U. ferox
  • U. fissa
  • U. galeopsifolia
  • U. gracilenta
  • U. hyperborea
  • U. incisa
  • U. kioviensis
  • U. laetivirens
  • U. linearifolia
  • U. mairei
  • U. membranacea
  • U. morifolia
  • U. parviflora
  • U. pilulifera
  • U. platyphylla
  • U. pubescens
  • U. rupestris
  • U. sondenii
  • U. taiwaniana
  • U. thunbergiana
  • U. triangularisa
  • U. urens

Groups above the rank of species (and even species if there are several notable subspecies) should usually include a list of subgroups. Use the |subdivision= parameter for the list. The list can be formatted using a number of templates, such as the specialized {{linked taxon list}} and {{linked species list}}, which deal with authorities as well (see the documentation at Template:Taxon list for variant templates), or using a general list template such as {{columns-list}}. Use the |subdivision_ranks= parameter to say what rank the subgroups have. For instance, for families in an order:

| subdivision_ranks = Families
| subdivision       =
  {{linked taxon list

For lists with more than a few subgroups, the list can be bracketed with {{div col}} and {{div col end}}, which will split the list into two columns (see Nettle example at right). In cases where a list would make the taxobox too long, or where the classification is too variable to allow a brief summary, the list should be replaced with a comment like "See text" or the subdivision section should be omitted. As a rule of thumb, when there are more than 100 subgroups the list should be in a separate article.

In cases where the classification is variable, a description like "Typical orders" or "Notable orders" may be used.

In cases where the ranks are uncertain, a description like "Subgroups" or "Taxa" may be preferable. Sometimes it is convenient to represent more than one level of classification in the list. In that case the lower level groups are moved over to the right by prefixing them with &nbsp; characters – usually three for the first level of indentation, and then one to three more for each subsequent level. Major grades may also be represented by bolded headers, as on plant and heterokont. Remember, though, these should mainly be done when the intermediate rank subgroups are not worthy of separate articles; taxoboxes are too small to include too much duplicate information.

Conservation status[स्रोत सम्पादन]

IUCN from 2001 (IUCN3.1)
IUCN from 1994 (IUCN2.3)
Global NatureServe status (TCN)
U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA)
Canada's Species at Risk/SARA (COSEWIC)
Australia's Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation (EPBC)
Western Australia's Declared Rare and Priority Flora List (DECF)
New Zealand Threat Classification System (NZTCS)

Conservation status may optionally be included to show a graphical view of the conservation status. It is composed from a set of parameters according to the following structure:

|status = code
|status_system = classification system – required if code is set
|status_ref = <ref>...</ref> – optional
|extinct = year of extinction – optional (only use if |status=EX and year of extinction is known)

Note: This format is not appropriate for prehistoric organisms – the |fossil_range= parameter may be a more sensible option.

Status system[स्रोत सम्पादन]

There are several organizations declaring conservation status, and this has led to different classification and criteria. For this reason a status level must also be specified together with the classification system used.

The recommended status_system to use is IUCN3.1, but if not available for the species, other systems are supported. Details and other systems are listed at Wikipedia:Conservation status. Images to the right provide examples of the available systems, both international and national. IUCN2.3 is deprecated for new boxes, although some taxoboxes still exist and are supported for this version.

This parameter is required in order to display the proper conservation status graphic. Failure to use this parameter will result in no graphic appearing.

Status code[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Set the relevant status code from the selected system. The code should use upper and lower case as specified per system documentation. It may also be possible to use a template instead of the code[citation needed].

You can search the IUCN's database of threatened species to find the conservation status of many organisms.

With each system having different codes, please refer to system documentation for the available codes.

The following list is kept in the documentation for historic reasons (the third column shows the category that is automatically added to the article):

Status (as shown in taxobox) Code Category assigned
Secure secure[IUCN १]
Domesticated DOM[IUCN १] Category:Domesticated animals
Least Concern (LC) LC
Least Concern (LR/lc) LR/lc
Near Threatened (NT) NT
Near Threatened (LC/nt) LR/nt
Conservation Dependent (LR/cd) LR/cd
Vulnerable (VU) VU
Endangered (EN) EN Category:Endangered species
Critically Endangered CR Category:Critically endangered species
Critically Endangered (CR), possibly extinct PE Category:Critically endangered species
Extinct in the wild (EW) EW Category:Species extinct in the wild
Extinct EX
Data deficient (DD) DD
Not evaluated (NE) NE
Fossil fossil[IUCN १][IUCN २]
Prehistoric pre[IUCN १]
See text See text[IUCN १]
Lower Risk LR[IUCN १][IUCN ३]
  1. १.० १.१ १.२ १.३ १.४ १.५ This is not a valid IUCN Red List category
  2. |status=fossil is deprecated in favour of |fossil_range= {{fossil range}} (see the #Fossil range section below).
  3. LR is deprecated; use LR/lc or LR/nt or LR/cd instead.
Referencing conservation status[स्रोत सम्पादन]

To add a reference for the status, use:

 | status_ref = <ref>{{Cite journal | author = |title = | journal = [[The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species]] | volume = | page = | publisher = [[International Union for Conservation of Nature]] | date = | url = | doi = | access-date = }}</ref>

See {{Cite journal}} or {{IUCN}} for the parameters you need to supply to that template. And don't forget that <ref> requires a corresponding {{Reflist}} or <references /> in the References section.

Fossil range[स्रोत सम्पादन]

The stratigraphic range for groups known as fossils may also be included, using the |fossil_range= parameter. For instance, for a group known from the Cambrian to the Permian:

 |fossil_range = [[Cambrian]]–[[Permian]]

You may wish to add a diagrammatic representation of the fossil range (as shown below), which can be created using the {{Fossil range}} template, for example:

  | fossil_range = {{fossil range|Cambrian|Permian}}


  | fossil_range = {{fossil range|542|250}} [[Cambrian]]–[[Permian]]

For extant taxa that continue into the present day, the ending period should be set to "Recent" or as "Holocene" for Late Quaternary extinctions such as the moa, and the current status should be indicated using the |status= parameter.

For groups that only existed during a single period, simply list it without giving a range: e.g.:

 | fossil_range = {{fossil range|Silurian}} 

Images[स्रोत सम्पादन]

An image can be included using the parameter |image=. It is highly recommended that an image be provided if one is available. Do not include the "File:" part of the image file name!

If an image is included, alt text should be provided using parameter "|image_alt=". Alt text should not repeat the caption; instead, it should describe the image contents to someone who can't see it (see WP:ALT).

A caption can be provided using parameter "|image_caption=". A caption need not be provided if it would just repeat the title of the article. It should be provided if it can convey any additional information about the image, such as the sex or life stage of the individual, the location where the picture was taken, the artist (if an engraving or other illustration), or (for higher taxa) the particular species depicted.

| image         = Sweetbay1082.jpg
| image_alt     = White flower surrounded by long green leaves
| image_caption = ''Magnolia virginiana''

By default, the image width is determined by each user's default thumbnail size preference. In general, it is recommended that these preferences be honoured. In some cases, however, it may be desirable to overrule the default size; this can be achieved by use of the |image_upright= parameter, which scales the image. Thus |image_upright=1.1 makes the image 10% larger than the user's default thumbnail size; |image_upright=0.75 makes it 25% smaller. See MOS:IMGSIZE for more information.

| image         = Sweetbay1082.jpg
| image_alt     = White flower surrounded by long green leaves
| image_caption = ''Magnolia virginiana''
| image_upright = 1.45

Long or complex image captions, which should rarely be necessary, look better when left-aligned. This can be achieved using "|image_caption_align=left".

A second image may be added by use of the |image2=, |image2_alt=, |image2_caption= and |image2_upright= parameters. Use this sparingly, and only when the article is long enough, and when it makes sense to include the second image inside the taxobox and not later in the article. Camel is a good example (a genus with two well-known representatives). A second image may also be useful for species that display sexual dimorphism so that both a male and female representative could be shown, e.g. Northern cardinal.

Authorities[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Generally, an authority should be given only for the taxa covered by the article. Higher groups which only include the article subject should also list authorities unless those are the same as for the taxa in question. In the case of species (or subspecies) the authority may be given in the binomial (or trinomial) section. Otherwise authorities may be listed in the placement section. For instance, for an order:

| ordo = 
| ordo_authority = 

The following examples illustrate the different conventions for names, dates, and punctuations in the different kingdoms.

  • Animalia
    • Original name valid: Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758
    • Organism reclassified: Panthera leo (Linnaeus, 1758) (originally Felis leo)
  • Plantae
    • Original name valid: Magnolia virginiana L.
    • Organism reclassified: Anacamptis pyramidalis (L.) Rich. (originally Orchis pyramidalis)
  • Bacteria
    • Original name valid: Vibrio cholerae R. Koch 1883
    • Organism reclassified: Streptococcus pneumoniae (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 (originally Micrococcus pneumoniae)
    • Old name revived: Salmonella enterica (ex Kauffmann & Edwards 1952) Le Minor & Popoff 1987

Authorities in scientific names are also abbreviated according to different standards for plants and animals. To decipher standard abbreviations, see

For more information refer to the article on binomial nomenclature.

Diversity[स्रोत सम्पादन]

In higher taxa, and taxa where the subdivision option does not indicate number of species, the |diversity= parameter may be used. This needs to be accompanied by |diversity_link= which links to an appropriate page, usually a List of ... species page. See, for example, Banksia: the subdivision lists only two subgenera, so the |diversity= option is used to specify the number of species.

| diversity_link = List of Quercus species
| diversity = c. 120 species

It is not a good idea to be too precise about the number of species. New species are still being regularly described in many groups. Moreover, changing systematic treatment is liable to alter the species number even in well-known genera. Rounding off the species number and denoting this as approximate value will help decreasing maintenance.

Use the |diversity_ref= parameter to give references for the number of species, for example:

| diversity_ref = <ref>Hershler and Longley, 1986, p. 127</ref>

Range maps[स्रोत सम्पादन]

A range map may be included at the end of the taxobox. This uses the |range_map=, |range_map_upright=, |range_map_alt=, and |range_map_caption= parameters, in the same manner as an image. Specifying range map width is unnecessary in most cases. See Leopard (land animal), Northern flicker (non-migratory bird), Lesser spotted eagle (migratory bird) and Killer whale (water animal) for examples.

| range_map         = Map.jpg
| range_map_upright = 1.1
| range_map_alt     = Map showing ...
| range_map_caption = Range of ...

Up to four range maps can be included, via additional parameters such as |range_map2=, |range_map2_caption=, etc.

You can generate maps using an appropriate blank map such as Image:BlankMap-World-noborders.png. Do not make the distribution map too large (a width of 300 to 400 should be sufficient, the purpose of the map being a rough global overview; more detailed maps can always go to the article body) and add the map to Category:Habitat maps, or, preferably, if you upload the map to Commons, to commons:Category:Animal distribution maps.

Synonyms[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Where a species has synonyms, the |synonyms= parameter may be used. The list of synonyms can be formatted using the same approach as for Subdivisions, but synonyms should not normally be linked, so e.g. {{Taxon list}} should be used for taxa whose names aren't italicized and {{Species list}} for those whose names are.

| synonyms =
  {{Species list

Nomenclator Zoologicus has data for all but the most recently established animal genera. This may be hard to understand for non-specialists, but it is a comprehensive source for the authorship of genus names, both valid ones and junior synonyms. Sometimes one will note that a new name has been established because the older, original name was "preoccupied". This means it has already been established for another taxon of the same rank in the same kingdom before – even if that name is now a synonym too. Taxa that preoccupy a name can be linked in the Synonyms section, such as Stenorhynchus here.

Use |synonyms_ref= to give references for the synonym list, for example:

| synonyms_ref = <ref>Smith and Jones, 2009, p. 5 </ref>

Type species[स्रोत सम्पादन]

When the type species of a genus (or larger grouping) is known, the |type_species= and |type_species_authority= can be used.

For botanical entries, i.e. names under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), the currently accepted name in the genus should be used. The term "type species" does not occur in the ICN, but is used here for convenience. The Index Nominum Genericorum is a useful source of information and can be used as a reference.

For animal entries, i.e. names under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), the type species should be the original binomial name of the type species, but linked to its current article, and the authority should be plain (no parentheses). See Mirza for a type species example.

| type_species           = the original name of the species that was initially used to describe the genus, without regard to its present-day nomenclature
| type_species_authority =

This follows ICZN Recommendation 67B; be aware that this means the taxon used by the genus' original author – even if it is now invalid, e.g. a junior synonym. Ideally, it should only be used if the genus' original description can be verified first-hand. As per the following example given by the ICZN:

Astacus marinus Fabricius, 1775, one of the nominal species originally included in the decapod crustacean genus Homarus Weber, 1795, was subsequently designated by Fowler (1912) as the type species of Homarus. The type species is, and should be cited as, Astacus marinus Fabricius, 1775. Astacus marinus Fabricius is currently synonymized with Cancer gammarus Linnaeus, 1758, but the latter is not the type species of Homarus and should not be cited as such. If mention of the type species is required it should be made in some such manner as "Type species Astacus marinus Fabricius, 1775, a junior synonym of Cancer gammarus Linnaeus, 1758"; or "Type species Astacus marinus Fabricius, 1775, now regarded as a synonym of Homarus gammarus (Linnaeus, 1758)".

If you do not completely understand what this all means, please do not use this parameter. Instead, if possible denote the type species in the species listing, for example with a

<small>([[type species]])</small>

after the species' (currently valid) name.

Italic page titles[स्रोत सम्पादन]

If the value of |genus=, |species=, or |binomial= is italicized and exactly matches the title of the page, and |name= is unspecified, the taxobox and page title will be italicized automatically.[note २] If necessary, it is also possible to force the page title to display in italics using the {{Italic title}} template.

If the |name= parameter is present, then the taxobox will display whatever is in |name=; the page title will NOT be italicized unless {{italic title}} is used.

Complete blank template[स्रोत सम्पादन]

This section gives all parameters in the order that they will appear in the taxobox. No taxobox should use all of these. Keep it short! Note that parameters in this template are case-sensitive.

Temporal range: 100–0 मिलियन वर्ष
fossil range
image alt
image caption
image2 alt
image2 caption
Virus classification
(status of classification)
virus group
unranked superdomain

unranked superdomain authority

domain authority

superregnum authority
unranked regnum

unranked regnum authority

regnum authority

subregnum authority

superdivisio authority

superphylum authority
unranked divisio

unranked divisio authority

divisio authority
unranked phylum

unranked phylum authority

phylum authority

subdivisio authority

subphylum authority

infraphylum authority

microphylum authority

nanophylum authority

superclassis authority
unranked classis

unranked classis authority

classis authority
unranked subclassis

unranked subclassis authority

subclassis authority
unranked infraclassis

unranked infraclassis authority

infraclassis authority

magnordo authority

superordo authority
unranked ordo

unranked ordo authority

ordo authority

subordo authority

infraordo authority

parvordo authority

zoodivisio authority

zoosectio authority

zoosubsectio authority
unranked superfamilia

unranked superfamilia authority

superfamilia authority

familia authority

subfamilia authority

supertribus authority
unranked tribus

unranked tribus authority

tribus authority

subtribus authority

alliance authority
unranked genus

genus authority

genus authority

subgenus authority

sectio authority

subsectio authority

series authority

subseries authority
Species group:
species group

species group authority
Species subgroup:
species subgroup

species subgroup authority
Species complex:
species complex

species complex authority

species authority

subspecies authority

variety authority

forma authority
Binomial name
binomial authority
Trinomial name
trinomial authority
Type genus
type genus
type genus authority
Type species
type species
type species authority
Type strain
type strain
subdivision ranks


range map alt
range map caption
binomial2 authority
range map2 alt
range map2 caption
binomial3 authority
range map3 alt
range map3 caption
binomial4 authority
range map4 alt
range map4 caption


| color                           = 
| name                            = 
| fossil_range                    = 
| image                           = 
| image_upright                   = 
| image_alt                       = 
| image_caption                   = 
| image_caption_align             =
| image2                          = 
| image2_upright                  = 
| image2_alt                      = 
| image2_caption                  = 
| status                          = 
| status_system                   = 
| status_ref                      = 
| classification_status           = 
| virus_group                     = 
| unranked_superdomain            = 
| unranked_superdomain_authority  = 
| superdomain                     = 
| superdomain_authority           = 
| domain                          = 
| domain_authority                = 
| superregnum                     = 
| superregnum_authority           = 
| unranked_regnum                 = 
| unranked_regnum_authority       = 
| regnum                          = 
| regnum_authority                = 
| subregnum                       = 
| subregnum_authority             = 
| superdivisio                    = 
| superdivisio_authority          = 
| superphylum                     = 
| superphylum_authority           = 
| unranked_divisio                = 
| unranked_divisio_authority      =
| divisio                         = 
| divisio_authority               = 
| unranked_phylum                 = 
| unranked_phylum_authority       = 
| phylum                          = 
| phylum_authority                =
| subdivisio                      = 
| subdivisio_authority            = 
| subphylum                       = 
| subphylum_authority             = 
| infraphylum                     = 
| infraphylum_authority           = 
| microphylum                     = 
| microphylum_authority           = 
| nanophylum                      = 
| nanophylum_authority            = 
| superclassis                    = 
| superclassis_authority          = 
| unranked_classis                = 
| unranked_classis_authority      = 
| classis                         = 
| classis_authority               = 
| unranked_subclassis             = 
| unranked_subclassis_authority   = 
| subclassis                      = 
| subclassis_authority            = 
| unranked_infraclassis           = 
| unranked_infraclassis_authority = 
| infraclassis                    = 
| infraclassis_authority          = 
| magnordo                        = 
| magnordo_authority              = 
| superordo                       = 
| superordo_authority             = 
| unranked_ordo                   = 
| unranked_ordo_authority         = 
| ordo                            = 
| ordo_authority                  = 
| subordo                         = 
| subordo_authority               = 
| infraordo                       = 
| infraordo_authority             = 
| parvordo                        = 
| parvordo_authority              = 
| zoodivisio                      = 
| zoodivisio_authority            = 
| zoosectio                       = 
| zoosectio_authority             = 
| zoosubsectio                    = 
| zoosubsectio_authority          = 
| unranked_superfamilia           = 
| unranked_superfamilia_authority = 
| superfamilia                    = 
| superfamilia_authority          = 
| familia                         = 
| familia_authority               = 
| subfamilia                      = 
| subfamilia_authority            = 
| supertribus                     = 
| supertribus_authority           = 
| unranked_tribus                 = 
| unranked_tribus_authority       = 
| tribus                          = 
| tribus_authority                = 
| subtribus                       = 
| subtribus_authority             = 
| alliance                        = 
| alliance_authority              = 
| unranked_genus                  = 
| unranked_genus_authority        = 
| genus                           = 
| genus_authority                 = 
| subgenus                        = 
| subgenus_authority              = 
| sectio                          = 
| sectio_authority                = 
| subsectio                       = 
| subsectio_authority             = 
| series                          = 
| series_authority                = 
| subseries                       = 
| subseries_authority             = 
| species_group                   = 
| species_group_authority         = 
| species_subgroup                = 
| species_subgroup_authority      = 
| species_complex                 = 
| species_complex_authority       = 
| species                         = 
| species_authority               = 
| subspecies                      = 
| subspecies_authority            = 
| variety                         = 
| variety_authority               = 
| forma                           = 
| forma_authority                 = 
| binomial                        = 
| binomial_authority              = 
| trinomial                       = 
| trinomial_authority             = 
| type_genus                      = 
| type_genus_authority            = 
| type_species                    = 
| type_species_authority          = 
| type_strain                     = 
| subdivision                     = 
| subdivision_ranks               = 
| diversity_ref                   = 
| diversity                       = 
| diversity_link                  = 
| range_map                       = 
| range_map_upright               = 
| range_map_alt                   = 
| range_map_caption               = 
| binomial2                       = 
| binomial2_authority             = 
| range_map2                      = 
| range_map2_upright              = 
| range_map2_alt                  = 
| range_map2_caption              = 
| binomial3                       = 
| binomial3_authority             = 
| range_map3                      = 
| range_map3_upright              = 
| range_map3_alt                  = 
| range_map3_caption              = 
| binomial4                       = 
| binomial4_authority             = 
| range_map4                      = 
| range_map4_upright              = 
| range_map4_alt                  = 
| range_map4_caption              = 
| synonyms_ref                    = 
| synonyms                        = 

All parameters[स्रोत सम्पादन]

The full list of parameters is illustrated inside the infobox above, in the "Complete blank template".

color – typical color code
name – name defaults to {{PAGENAME}}
status – conservation status code
status_system – status-system type
status_ref – status reference
regnum – (standard) kingdom name
phylum – (standard) phylum name
classis – (standard) class name
ordo – (standard) order name
familia – (standard) family name
genus – (standard) genus name
species – (standard) species name
fossil_range – (as shown at top of box)
image – (as shown in box)
image_upright – (as shown in box)
image_alt – (as shown in box)
image_caption – (as shown in box)
image2 – (as shown in box)
image2_upright – (as shown in box)
image2_alt – (as shown in box)
image2_caption – (as shown in box)
classification_status – (as shown in box)
virus_group – (as shown in box)
superdomain – (as shown in box)
superdomain_authority – (as shown in box)
unranked_superdomain – (as shown in box)
unranked_superdomain_ authority – (as shown in box)
domain – (as shown in box)
domain_authority – (as shown in box)
unranked_regnum – (as shown in box)
unranked_regnum_authority – (as shown in box)
superregnum – (as shown in box)
superregnum_authority – (as shown in box)
regnum_authority – (as shown in box)
subregnum – (as shown in box)
subregnum_authority – (as shown in box)
unranked_phylum – (as shown in box)
unranked_phylum_authority – (as shown in box)
superdivisio – (as shown in box)
superdivisio_authority – (as shown in box)
superphylum – (as shown in box)
superphylum_authority – (as shown in box)
divisio – (as shown in box)
divisio authority – (as shown in box)
unranked_divisio – (as shown in box)
unranked_divisio_authority – (as shown in box)
phylum_authority – (as shown in box)
subdivisio – (as shown in box)
subdivisio_authority – (as shown in box)
subphylum – (as shown in box)
subphylum_authority – (as shown in box)
infraphylum – (as shown in box)
infraphylum_authority – (as shown in box)
microphylum – (as shown in box)
microphylum_authority – (as shown in box)
nanophylum – (as shown in box)
nanophylum_authority – (as shown in box)
unranked_classis – (as shown in box)
unranked_classis_authority – (as shown in box)
superclassis – (as shown in box)
superclassis_authority – (as shown in box)
classis_authority – (as shown in box)
unranked_subclassis – (as shown in box)
unranked_subclassis_authority – (as shown in box)
subclassis – (as shown in box)
subclassis_authority – (as shown in box)
unranked_infraclassis – (as shown in box)
unranked_infraclassis_authority – (as shown in box)
infraclassis – (as shown in box)
infraclassis_authority – (as shown in box)
unranked_ordo – (as shown in box)
unranked_ordo_authority – (as shown in box)
magnordo – (as shown in box)
magnordo_authority – (as shown in box)
superordo – (as shown in box)
superordo_authority – (as shown in box)
ordo_authority – (as shown in box)
subordo – (as shown in box)
subordo_authority – (as shown in box)
infraordo – (as shown in box)
infraordo_authority – (as shown in box)
parvordo – (as shown in box)
parvordo_authority – (as shown in box)
zoodivisio – (as shown in box)
zoodivisio_authority – (as shown in box)
zoosectio – (as shown in box)
zoosectio_authority – (as shown in box)
zoosubsectio – (as shown in box)
zoosubsectio_authority – (as shown in box)
unranked_superfamilia – (as shown in box)
unranked_superfamilia_authority – (as shown in box)
superfamilia – (as shown in box)
superfamilia_authority – (as shown in box)
familia_authority – (as shown in box)
subfamilia – (as shown in box)
subfamilia_authority – (as shown in box)
unranked_tribus – (as shown in box)
unranked_tribus_authority – (as shown in box)
supertribus – (as shown in box)
supertribus_authority – (as shown in box)
tribus – (as shown in box)
tribus_authority – (as shown in box)
subtribus – (as shown in box)
subtribus_authority – (as shown in box)
alliance – (as shown in box)
alliance_authority – (as shown in box)
unranked_genus – (as shown in box)
unranked_genus_authority – (as shown in box)
genus_authority – (as shown in box)
subgenus – (as shown in box)
subgenus_authority – (as shown in box)
sectio – (as shown in box)
sectio_authority – (as shown in box)
subsectio – (as shown in box)
subsectio_authority – (as shown in box)
series – (as shown in box)
series_authority – (as shown in box)
subseries – (as shown in box)
subseries_authority – (as shown in box)
species_group – (as shown in box)
species_group_authority – (as shown in box)
species_subgroup – (as shown in box)
species_subgroup_authority – (as shown in box)
species_complex – (as shown in box)
species_complex_authority – (as shown in box)
species_authority – (as shown in box)
subspecies – (as shown in box)
subspecies_authority – (as shown in box)
variety – (as shown in box)
variety_authority – (as shown in box)
forma – (as shown in box)
forma_authority – (as shown in box)
diversity_ref – (as shown in box)
diversity – (as shown in box)
diversity_link – (as shown in box)
binomial – (as shown in box)
binomial_authority – (as shown in box)
trinomial – (as shown in box)
trinomial_authority – (as shown in box)
type_genus – (as shown in box)
type_genus_authority – (as shown in box)
type_species – (as shown in box)
type_species_authority – (as shown in box)
subdivision – (as shown in box)
subdivision_ranks – (as shown in box)
type_strain – (as shown in box)
range_map – 1st map, bottom of box
range_map_upright – 1st map scaling = 0.9 i.e. 90% of default size
range_map_alt – 1st map ALT= text
range_map_caption – 1st caption, under picture
binomial2 – (as shown in box)
binomial2_authority – (as shown in box)
range_map2 – 2nd map in box
range_map2_upright – 2nd map scaling = 0.9
range_map2_alt – 2nd map ALT= text
range_map2_caption – 2nd map caption
binomial3 – (as shown in box)
binomial3_authority – (as shown in box)
range_map3 – 3rd map in box
range_map3_upright – 3rd map scaling = 0.9
range_map3_alt – 3rd map ALT= text
range_map3_caption – 3rd maq caption
binomial4 – (as shown in box)
binomial4_authority – (as shown in box)
range_map4 – 4th map in box
range_map4_upright – 4th map scaling = 0.9
range_map4_alt – 4th map ALT= text
range_map4_caption – 4th map caption
synonyms_ref – reference for synonyms
synonyms – (as at bottom of box)

Articles lacking taxoboxes[स्रोत सम्पादन]

For articles lacking taxoboxes, add Template:Missing-taxobox to the talk page. This may be done by typing {{Missing-taxobox}} or {{needtaxobox}} at the top of the talk page.

Microformat[स्रोत सम्पादन]

This template emits a "species" (or "biota") microformat.

The microformat is created by the use of class="biota", and classes for individual taxonomic ranks, such as class="domain" in a span around {{{domain}}} (full list). Please do not change or remove those classes other than as part of development of the microformat. For background information, see microformats on Wikipedia and the microformat specification.

Template Data[स्रोत सम्पादन]

This is the TemplateData documentation for this template used by VisualEditor and other tools; see the monthly parameter usage report for this template.

TemplateData for Taxobox

An infobox for plants, animals and other biological taxa

ढाँचा प्यारामिटरहरू[ढाँचा डाटा सम्पादन गर्नुहोस्]

This template prefers block formatting of parameters.


For plants, see [[Wikipedia:Naming conventions (flora)]]. For all other living things, the name should be the most common vernacular name, when one is in widespread use, and a scientific name otherwise.


An image to use, do not include the 'File:' part of the image file name.

Image Widthimage_width image width

(Deprecated) Width to display the image at. Should not normally be set. e.g. 320px

Image Upright scaleimage_upright image upright

Scale to display the image at. e.g. 1.1

Image alt textimage_alt image alt

Alt text which describes the image to someone who can't see it

Image captionimage_caption

Caption displayed under the image

Image caption alignmentimage_caption_align image caption alignment

Alignment of the caption displayed under the image, e.g. left. Should not normally be set.


Kingdom: [[Animalia]], [[Plantae]], [[Fungi]], other taxa may want to use domain or other ranks instead


Division in botany, e.g. [[Bryophyta]]. Not for flowering plants using the APG III system


Phylum in zoology, eg [[Chordata]] for chordates


Class/classis taxonomic rank


Order/ordo taxonomic rank


Family/familia taxonomic rank


Genus taxonomic rank, in italics, e.g. ''[[Homo]]''

Genus authoritygenus_authority

कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


Species taxonomic rank. Should be given in abbreviated forms and in italics, e.g. ''H. sapiens''.


Full binomial name of taxa, In full form with italics, e.g. ''Salix alba'' var. ''caerulea''

Binomial authoritybinomial_authority

Binomial authority using appropriate conventions, eg [[Carl Linnaeus|L.]] (for plants), [[Carl Linnaeus|Linnaeus]], 1761 (for animals)

Range maprange_map range map

Map of range

Range map widthrange_map_width range map width

Width to display range map. Should not normally be set. e.g. 320px

Range map alt textrange_map_alt range map alt

Alt text describing the range in words

Range map captionrange_map_caption range map caption

Caption/key for the range map

Conservation statusstatus

The conservation status code: 'secure', domesticated 'DOM', Least Concern 'LC', Lower Risk—Least Concern 'LR/lc', Near Threatened 'NT', Lower Risk—Near Threatened 'LR/nt', Lower Risk—Conservation Dependent 'LR/cd', Vulnerable 'VU', Endangered 'EN', Critically Endangered 'CR', Possibly Extinct 'PE', Extinct in the wild 'EW', Extinct 'EX', Data deficient 'DD', Not evaluated 'NE',Fossil 'fossil', Prehistoric 'pre', 'See text', Lower Risk 'LR'

Conservation status systemstatus_system status system

System used for Conservation status: 'IUCN3.1', 'IUCN2.3', 'EPBC' etc. Required if status given.

Status referencestatus_ref status ref

Reference for status <ref>{{Cite journal|...}}</ref>

Year of extinctionextinct

Year of extinction, if known

Fossil rangefossil_range

The stratigraphic range for groups known as fossils. E.g. [[Cambrian]]–[[Permian]] or {{fossil range|Cambrian|Permian}} to give a chart. Use 'Recent' for extant taxa and 'Holocene' for Late Quaternary extinctions.

Virus groupvirus_group virus group

Viruses not placed in taxa above the rank of order, instead a virus group is used, given by a Roman numeral from I to VII

Unranked superdomainunranked_superdomain unranked superdomain

For each major taxon you can add an unranked entry to the taxobox. The entry unranked X appears above rank X


This and other minor ranks should only be used when they are important to understanding the classification of the taxon described in the article

Superdomain Authoritysuperdomain_authority superdomain authority

The authority used for this rank. Every rank has a rank authority field which are not currently listed


Domain for Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन

Unranked kingdomunranked_regnum

कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन

Unranked divisionunranked_divisio unranked divisio

For flowering plants using the APG IV system this should be set to [[Angiosperms]] rather than using division/divisio

Unranked phylumunranked_phylum

कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन

Unranked classunranked_classis unranked classis

For flowering plants using the APG IV system this should be used rather than class/classis

Unranked subclassunranked_subclassis unranked subclassis

कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन

Unranked infraclassunranked_infraclassis unranked infraclassis

कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन

Unranked orderunranked_ordo unranked ordo

Generally used for flowering plants using the APG IV system


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


Used in zoology, a different rank to the division used in botany.


Used in zoology, a different rank to the section used in botany.


Used in zoology, a different rank to the subsection used in botany.

Unranked Superfamilyunranked_superfamilia

कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन

unranked tribeunranked_tribus unranked tribus

कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन

Unranked genusunranked_genus unranked genus

कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


Used in botany, use zoosectio in zoology


Used in botany, use zoosubsectio in zoology


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन

Species groupspecies_group species group

कुनैपनि विवरण छैन

species subgroupspecies_subgroup species subgroup

कुनैपनि विवरण छैन

species complexspecies_complex species complex

कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


कुनैपनि विवरण छैन


Used in botany, not in zoology


The full trinomial name for subspecies, it should generally be in italics.

trinomial authoritytrinomial_authority trinomial authority

The authority for a trinomial.


A list of synonyms for a species, e.g. ''species1'' <small>Authority1</small><br/> ''species2'' <small>Authority2</small>

Synonyms refsynonyms_ref

References for the synonym lists, e.g.<ref>Smith and Jones, 2009, p. 5</ref>

Type speciestype_species

The original name of the species that was initially used to describe the genus, without regard to its present-day nomenclature.

Type species authoritytype_species_authority type species authority

Authority for the type species, don't use parenthesis.

Classification statusclassification_status classification status

Status of the scientific classification, e.g. disputed. Only use when the scientific classification text would be misleading without it.

Subdivision rankssubdivision_ranks subdivision ranks

Rank used for sub-divisions of this taxa, e.g. 'Families'


List of sub divisions of this taxa, e.g. [[Family1]]<br/> [[Family2]]<br/> [[Family3]]

Image 2image2

A second image, only use in rare circumstances.

Image 2 Widthimage2_width image2 width

Deprecated. Width of the second image

Image 2 Upright scaleimage2_upright image2 upright

Scale of the second image

Image 2 alt textimage2_alt image2 alt

Alt text which describes the second image to someone who can't see it

Image 2 captionimage2_caption

Caption to display under the second image


Second binomial name of taxa, only used in rare circumstances

Binomial authority 2binomial2_authority binomial2 authority

Authority of second binomial


Third binomial name of taxa, only used in rare circumstances

Binomial authority 3binomial3_authority binomial3 authority

Authority of third binomial


Fourth binomial name of taxa, only used in rare circumstances

Binomial authority 4binomial4_authority binomial4 authority

Authority of fourth binomial

Range map 2range_map2 range map2

Second map of range

Range map 2 widthrange_map2_width range map2 width

Width of second range map

Range map 2 alt textrange_map2_alt range map2 alt

Alt text describing the second range map

Range map 2 captionrange_map2_caption range map2 caption

Caption/key for the second range map

Range map 3range_map3 range map3

Third map of range

Range map 3 widthrange_map3_width range map3 width

Width of third range map

Range map 3 alt textrange_map3_alt range map3 alt

Alt text describing the third range map

Range map 3 captionrange_map3_caption range map3 caption

Caption/key for the third range map

Range map 4range_map4 range map4

Forth map of range

Range map 4 widthrange_map4_width range map4 width

Width of forth range map

Range map 4 alt textrange_map4_alt range map4 alt

Alt text describing the forth range map

Range map 4 captionrange_map4_caption range map4 caption

Caption/key for the fourth range map


Taxon defining the taxobox color if needed (normally not as it is set automatically)


Supporting templates[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Tracking categories[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Hidden category added by {{Taxobox}}:

Hidden categories added by {{Taxobox/core}}:

Hidden categories added by {{Taxobox/species}}:

Hidden categories added by {{Taxobox/Error colour}}:

Hidden categories added by {{Taxonbar/candidate}}:

See also[स्रोत सम्पादन]

  1. IUCN reference goes here
  2. diversity ref
  3. synonyms ref

Notes[स्रोत सम्पादन]

  1. If the page is called, for example, "Homo (genus)", then the taxobox will display "Homo" and the page title "Homo (genus)".
  2. See note 1; the title of the page will be italicized using the {{DISPLAYTITLE}} magic word. When the page name contains the disambiguator "(alga)" or "(genus)", this disambiguator will not be italicized (e.g., Ia (genus)).