ढाँचा:Citation

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The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used. As with other citation templates, this template can be used either in a footnote (between <ref>...</ref> tags) or in a section that lists sources. This template uses the same Lua code as citation style 1 (CS1) templates with parameters to change the displayed format to citation style 2 (CS2).

If the correct parameters are used, this template produces output identical to that of the Cite templates, such as {{Cite book}} and {{Cite web}}, with one important exception: By default, this Citation template uses commas in places where the Cite templates use periods (full stops) by default; either type of template can use periods (full stops) or commas by using an optional parameter. Also, this template by default generates anchors for Harvard references whereas the Cite templates by default do not (although they can be made to do so).

Regardless of which citation templates are used or even if none are used at all, all citations should have the same format throughout an article in the saved, rendered text.

Note: All parameter names must be lowercase.

Simple citations[स्रोत सम्पादन]

This section covers the most commonly used parameters. You can copy the horizontal form or vertical form below and then add in extra parameters from the full list. Spacing and ordering of the parameters within the template is irrelevant and does not affect the final, rendered text.

{{Citation |last= |first= |year= |title= |publisher= |publication-place= |page= |url= |accessdate= }}

{{Citation
| last       =
| first      =
| year       =
| title      =
| publisher  =
| publication-place =
| page       =
| url        =
| accessdate =
}}
  • last: The author's surname or last name. Don't use with the author parameter.
  • first: The author's first or given name(s).
  • year: Year of authorship or publication. Mandatory for use with links from Template:Harvard citation, unless |date= specifies both month and year.
  • title: Title of the work. Mandatory for web references.
  • publisher: The name of the publisher. Omit terms such as Publishers, Co., Inc., Ltd., etc., but retain the words Books or Press. Not normally included where the publication is a periodical which has its own Wikipedia article (e.g. Newsweek, Billboard).
    • publication-place (or place or location): The city of publication. If more than one town/city is listed on the title page, give the first one or the location of the publisher's head office. Omit when the publication is a periodical whose name specifies the location (e.g. The New York Times, The Times of India)
  • page: For use when one page is cited. Adds "p." before the page number. Do not use with pages.
  • url: A url of an online location where the item can be found. If the url includes double quotes, these must be encoded as "%22".
    • accessdate: Date[n १] when the url was accessed.

Example[स्रोत सम्पादन]

{{Citation
| last      = Turner
| first     = Orsamus
| title     = History of the pioneer settlement of
Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve
| publisher = William Alling
| place     = Rochester, New York
| year      = 1851
| ol        = 7120924W
}}
Turner, Orsamus (1851), History of the pioneer settlement of Phelps and Gorham's purchase, and Morris' reserve, Rochester, New York: William Alling, OL 7120924W 

Full citation parameters[स्रोत सम्पादन]

These can be used for all types of publication except patents. All are optional and indentation is used simply to group related items — these may be mutually exclusive where indicated. Some hyphenated names can also be placed without hyphens.

{{Citation
| author  =
| last    =
| first   =
| author2 =
| last2   =
| first2  =
| author-link  =
| author2-link =
| author-separator =
| author-name-separator =
| author-mask =
| display-authors =
| editor        =
| editor-last   =
| editor-first  =
| editor2       =
| editor2-last  =
| editor2-first =
| editor-link   =
| editor2-link  =
| translator-last =
| translator-first =
| translator-link = 
| translator2-last =
| translator2-first =
| translator2-link =
| others   =
| publication-date =
| date     =
| year     =
| origyear =
| title    =
| chapter  =
| chapter-url  =
| chapter-format  =
| contribution =
| contribution-url =
| type    =
| journal =
| periodical =
| newspaper  =
| magazine   =
| work =
| edition =
| series  =
| volume  =
| issue   =
| publisher =
| publication-place =
| place    =
| language =
| page  =
| pages =
| nopp  =
| at   =
| id   =
| isbn =
| issn =
| oclc =
| pmid =
| pmc  =
| bibcode =
| doi =
| doi_inactivedate =
| zbl =
| url =
| accessdate  =
| format      =
| archiveurl  =
| archivedate =
| dead-url    =
| quote      =
| layurl =
| laysource  =
| laydate    =
| separator  =
| postscript =
| ref =
}}

Parameters[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Syntax[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Nested parameters rely on their parent parameters:

  • parent
  • OR: parent2—may be used instead of parent
    • child—may be used with parent (and is ignored if parent is not used)
    • OR: child2—may be used instead of child (and is ignored if parent2 is not used)
Where aliases are listed, only one of the parameters may be defined; if multiple aliased parameters are defined, then only one will show.

ढाँचा:Citation Style documentation/sep comma

COinS[स्रोत सम्पादन]

This template embeds COinS metadata in the HTML output, allowing reference management software to retrieve bibliographic metadata. See Wikipedia:COinS. As a general rule, only one data item per parameter. Do not include explanatory or alternate text:

  • Use |date=27 September 2007 not |date=27 September 2007 (print version 25 September)

Use of templates within the citation template is discouraged because many of these templates will add extraneous HTML or CSS that will be included raw in the metadata. Also, HTML entities, for example &nbsp;, &ndash;, etc, should not be used in parameters that contribute to the metadata. Do not include Wiki markup '' (italic font) or ''' (bold font) because these markup characters will contaminate the metadata.

COinS metadata is created for these parameters
  • |periodical=, |journal=, |newspaper=, |magazine=, |work=, |website=, |encyclopedia=, |encyclopaedia=, |dictionary=
  • |chapter=, |contribution=, |entry=, |article=, |section=
  • |title=
  • |publication-place=, |publicationplace=, |place=, |location=
  • |date=, |year=, |publication-date=, |publicationdate=
  • |series=, |version=
  • |volume=
  • |issue=, |number=
  • |page=, |pages=, |at=
  • |edition=
  • |publisher=, |distributor=, |institution=
  • |url=
  • |chapter-url=, |chapterurl=, |contribution-url=, |contributionurl=, |section-url=, |sectionurl=
  • |author#=, |author-last#=, |author#-last=, |last#=, |surname#=
  • |author-first#=, |author#-first=, |first#=, |given#=
  • any of the named identifiers (|isbn=, |issn=, |doi=, |pmc=, etc)

Deprecated[स्रोत सम्पादन]

None of the cs1|2 parameters are deprecated.

Description[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Authors[स्रोत सम्पादन]

  • last: Surname of a single author. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. For corporate authors or authors for whom only one name is listed by the source, use last or one of its aliases (e.g. |author=Bono). Aliases: surname, author, last1, surname1, author1.
    • author: this parameter is used to hold the complete name of a single author (first and last) or to hold the name of a corporate author. This parameter should never hold the names of more than one author.
    • first: Given or first names of author; for example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use author-link instead. Aliases: given, first1, given1. Requires last; first name will not display if last is empty.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use last1, first1 through lastn, firstn, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of authors (each firstn requires a corresponding lastn). See the display parameters to change how many authors are displayed. Aliases: surname1, given1 through surnamen, givenn, or author1 through authorn. For an individual author plus an institutional author, you can use |first1=...|last1=...|author2=....
    • author-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the author—not the author's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: author-link1, authorlink, authorlink1, author1-link, author1link.
    • OR: for multiple authors, use author-link1 through author-linkn. Aliases: authorlink1 through authorlinkn, or author1-link through authorn-link, or author1link through authornlink.
    • name-list-format: displays authors and editors in Vancouver style when set to vanc and when the list uses last/first parameters for the name list(s).
  • vauthors: comma-separated list of author names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional author names in doubled parentheses:
    |vauthors=Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corporation))
    • author-link and author-mask may be used for the individual names in |vauthors= as described above
  • authors: Free-form list of author names; use of this parameter is discouraged because it does not contribute to a citation's metadata; not an alias of last.
  • coauthors: (deprecated) Names of coauthors. Requires author, authors, or lastn Include coauthors in author or authors or use separate authorn or lastn/firstn to list coauthors.
  • contributor-last: Surname of contributor. Do not wikilink—use contributor-link instead. For book cites only, requires contribution; used primarily to cite afterword, foreword, introduction, or preface to authorढाँचा:'s work. Aliases: contributor-surname, contributor1, contributor1-last, contributor-last1.
    • contributor-first: Given or first names of contributor. Do not wikilink—use contributor-link instead. Aliases: contributor-given, contributor1-first, contributor-first1.
    • OR: for multiple contributors, use contributor-last1, contributor-first1 through contributor-lastn, contributor-firstn where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of contributors (each contributor-firstn requires a corresponding contributor-lastn). Aliases: contributor1-last, contributor1-first through contributorn-last, contributorn-first, or contributor1 through contributorn.
    • contributor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the contributor—not the contributor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: contributor-link1, contributor1-link.
    • OR: for multiple contributors, use contributor-link1 through contributor-linkn. Aliases: contributor1-link through contributorn-link.
  • translator-last: Surname of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-surname, translator1, translator1-last, translator-last1.
    • translator-first: Given or first names of translator. Do not wikilink—use translator-link instead. Aliases: translator-given, translator1-first, translator-first1.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-last1, translator-first1 through translator-lastn, translator-firstn, where n is any consecutive number for an unlimited number of translators (each translator-firstn requires a corresponding translator-lastn). Aliases: translator1-last, translator1-first through translatorn-last, translatorn-first, or translator1 through translatorn.
    • translator-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the translator—not the translator's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: translator-link1, translator1-link.
    • OR: for multiple translators, use translator-link1 through translator-linkn. Aliases: translator1-link through translatorn-link.
  • collaboration: Name of a group of authors or collaborators; requires author, last, or vauthors listing one or more primary authors; follows author name-list; appends "et al." to author name-list.
  • others: To record other contributors to the work, including illustrators. For the parameter value, write Illustrated by John Smith.
  • Note: When using shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing styles with templates, do not use multiple names in one field, or else the anchor will not match the inline link.

Editors[स्रोत सम्पादन]

  • editor-last: Surname of editor. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Where the surname is usually written first—as in Chinese—or for corporate authors, simply use editor-last to include the same format as the source. Aliases: editor-last1, editor1-last, editor-surname, editor-surname1, editor1-surname, editor, editor1.
    • editor: this parameter is used to hold the complete name of a single editor (first and last). This parameter should never hold the names of more than one editor.
    • editor-first: Given or first names of editor, including title(s); example: Firstname Middlename or Firstname M. or Dr. Firstname M., Sr. Do not wikilink—use editor-link instead. Aliases: editor-first1, editor1-first, editor-given, editor-given1, editor1-given.
    • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-last1, editor-first1 through editor-lastn, editor-firstn (Aliases: editorn-last, editor-surnamen or editorn-surname; editorn-first, editor-givenn or editorn-given; editorn). For an individual editor plus an institutional editor, you can use |editor-first1=...|editor-last1=...|editor2=....
  • editor-link: Title of existing Wikipedia article about the editor—not the editor's website; do not wikilink. Aliases: editor-link1.
  • OR: for multiple editors, use editor-link1 through editor-linkn (alias editorn-link).
  • name-list-format: displays authors and editors in Vancouver style when set to vanc and when the list uses last/first parameters for the name list(s)
  • veditors: comma separated list of editor names in Vancouver style; enclose corporate or institutional names in doubled parentheses:
    |veditors=Smythe JB, ((Megabux Corporation))
  • editor-linkn and editor-maskn may be used for the individual names in |veditors=, as described above
  • editors: Free-form list of editor names; use of this parameter is discouraged; not an alias of editor-last
Display:
Use display-editors to control the length of the displayed editor name list and to specify when "et al." is included.
If authors: Authors are first, followed by the included work, then "In" and the editors, then the main work.
If no authors: Editors appear before the included work; a single editor is followed by "ed."; multiple editors are followed by "eds."

Title[स्रोत सम्पादन]

ढाँचा:Citation Style documentation/title ढाँचा:Citation Style documentation/chapter ढाँचा:Citation Style documentation/type ढाँचा:Citation Style documentation/language

Date[स्रोत सम्पादन]

  • date: Date of source being referenced. Can be full date (day, month, and year) or partial date (month and year, season and year, or year). Use same format as other publication dates in the citations.[date १] Required when year is used to disambiguate {{sfn}} links to multiple-work citations by the same author in the same year.[more] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and is enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher. For acceptable date formats, see Help:Citation Style 1 § Dates.
For approximate year, precede with "c. ", like this: |date=c. 1900.

For no date, or "undated", add as |date=n.d.
  • year: Year of source being referenced. Use of |date= is recommended unless all of the following conditions are met:
    1. The template uses |ref=harv, or the template is {{citation}}, or |mode=cs2
    2. The |date= format is YYYY-MM-DD.
    3. The citation requires a CITEREF disambiguator.
  • orig-year: Original publication year; displays after the date or year. For clarity, please supply specifics. For example: |orig-year=First published 1859 or |orig-year=Composed 1904. Alias: origyear
  • df: date format; sets rendered dates to the specified format; does not support date ranges or seasonal dates. Accepts one value which may be one of these:
    dmy – set publication dates to day month year format; access- and archive-dates are not modified;
    mdy – as above for month day, year format
    ymd – as above for year initial numeric format YYYY-MM-DD
    dmy-all – set publication, access-, and archive-dates to day month year format;
    mdy-all – as above for month day, year format
    ymd-all – as above for year initial numeric format YYYY-MM-DD
  1. Publication dates in references within an article should all have the same format. This may be a different format from that used for archive and access dates. See MOS:DATEUNIFY.

Periodical[स्रोत सम्पादन]

ढाँचा:Citation Style documentation/journal

Publisher[स्रोत सम्पादन]

ढाँचा:Citation Style documentation/publisher

Edition, series, volume[स्रोत सम्पादन]

ढाँचा:Citation Style documentation/edition ढाँचा:Citation Style documentation/series ढाँचा:Citation Style documentation/volume

In-source locations[स्रोत सम्पादन]

ढाँचा:Citation Style documentation/pages

URL[स्रोत सम्पादन]

ढाँचा:Citation Style documentation/url

Chapter URL[स्रोत सम्पादन]

ढाँचा:Citation Style documentation/chapterurl

Anchor[स्रोत सम्पादन]

ढाँचा:Citation Style documentation/ref2

Identifiers[स्रोत सम्पादन]

ढाँचा:Citation Style documentation/id1 ढाँचा:Citation Style documentation/id2

Quote[स्रोत सम्पादन]

  • quote: Relevant text quoted from the source. Displays enclosed in quotes.

Laysummary[स्रोत सम्पादन]

  • lay-url: URL link to a non-technical summary or review of the source; the URL title is set to "Lay summary". Aliases: lay-summary, laysummary.
    • lay-source: Name of the source of the laysummary. Displays in italics and preceded by an endash. Alias: laysource.
    • lay-date: Date of the summary. Displays in parentheses. Alias: laydate.

Display options[स्रोत सम्पादन]

  • mode: Sets element separator, default terminal punctuation, and certain capitalization according to the value provided. For |mode=cs1, element separator and terminal punctuation is a period (.); where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are capitalized ('Retrieved...'). For |mode=cs2, element separator is a comma (,); terminal punctuation is omitted; where appropriate, initial letters of certain words are not capitalized ('retrieved...'). To override default terminal punctuation use postscript.
  • author-mask: Replaces the name of the first author with em dashes or text. Set author-mask to a numeric value n to set the dash n em spaces wide; set author-mask to a text value to display the text without a trailing author separator; for example, "with". You must still include the values for all authors for metadata purposes. Primarily intended for use with bibliographies or bibliography styles where multiple works by a single author are listed sequentially such as shortened footnotes. Do not use in a list generated by {{reflist}}, <references /> or similar as there is no control of the order in which references are displayed. You can also use editor-mask and translator-mask in the same way.
  • display-authors: Controls the number of author names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of authors, set display-authors to the desired number. For example, |display-authors=2 will display only the first two authors in a citation. By default, all authors are displayed. |display-authors=etal displays all authors in the list followed by et al. Aliases: displayauthors.
  • display-editors: Controls the number of editor names that are displayed when a citation is published. To change the displayed number of editors, set display-editors to the desired number. For example, |display-editors=2 will display only the first two editors in a citation. By default, all editors are displayed. |display-editors=etal displays all editors in the list followed by et al. Aliases: displayeditors.
  • last-author-amp: Switches the separator between the last two names of the author list to space ampersand space ( & ) when set to y, yes, or true. Example: |last-author-amp=yes
  • postscript: Controls the closing punctuation for a citation; defaults to none. Ignored if quote is defined.

Subscription or registration required[स्रोत सम्पादन]

ढाँचा:Citation Style documentation/registration

Examples[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Books[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Three authors, a volume, and an edition. Ampersand (&) forced before final author's name.
{{Citation
| last1  = Lincoln
| first1 = A.
| last2  = Washington
| first2 = G.
| last3  = Adams
| first3 = J.
| lastauthoramp = yes
| title     = All the Presidents' Names
| publisher = The Pentagon
| place     = Home Base, New York
| volume  = XII
| edition = 2nd
| year    = 2007
}}
Lincoln, A.; Washington, G. & Adams, J. (2007), All the Presidents' Names, XII (2nd ed.), Home Base, New York: The Pentagon 

Web[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Web page
{{Citation
| url   = http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/
| title = NPS Focus
| work  = National Register of Historic Places
| publisher  = [[National Park Service]]
| accessdate = November 30, 2010
| ref = none
}}
"NPS Focus", National Register of Historic Places, National Park Service, retrieved November 30, 2010 
Archived page
{{Citation
| url = http://liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| title = Earth's Atmosphere
| accessdate = October 25, 2007
| publisher  = [[National Aeronautics and Space Administration]]
| year   = 1995
| author = NASA
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071013232332/http://
liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov/academy/space/atmosphere.html
| archivedate = October 13, 2007
}}
NASA (1995), Earth's Atmosphere, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, archived from the original on October 13, 2007, retrieved October 25, 2007 

Journals, newspapers, magazines, or other periodicals[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Journal article
{{Citation
| last  = Hill
| first = Marvin S.
| title = Joseph Smith and the 1826
Trial: New Evidence and New
Difficulties
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume  = 12
| issue   = 2
| year    = 1976
| pages   = 1–8
| url     = https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/12.2Hill.pdf
}}
Hill, Marvin S. (1976), "Joseph Smith and the 1826 Trial: New Evidence and New Difficulties" (PDF), BYU Studies, 12 (2): 1–8 
Journal article with multiple authors and identifier
{{Citation
| last1  = Mandelkern
| first1 = M,
| last2  = Elias
| first2 = J,
| last3  = Eden
| first3 = D,
| last4  = Crothers
| first4 = D
| display-authors = 2
| title   = The dimensions of DNA in solution
| journal = J Mol Biol
| volume  = 152
| issue   = 1
| pages   = 153–161
| year    = 1981
| pmid    = 7338906
| doi     = 10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1
}}
Mandelkern, M,; Elias, J,; et al. (1981), "The dimensions of DNA in solution", J Mol Biol, 152 (1): 153–161, doi:10.1016/0022-2836(81)90099-1, PMID 7338906 
Newspaper article
{{Citation
| last  = Smith
| first = Joseph III
| author-link = Joseph Smith III
| title = Last Testimony of Sister Emma
| newspaper = The Saints' Herald
| publication-place = Plano, IL
| volume = 26
| issue  = 19
| date   = October 1, 1879

| page   = 289
| url    = http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/
IL/sain1872.htm#100179
}}
Smith, Joseph III (October 1, 1879), "Last Testimony of Sister Emma", The Saints' Herald, Plano, IL, 26 (19), p. 289 

Conference papers and public lectures[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Conference paper
{{Citation
| last   = Sullivan
| first  = D.B.
| contribution = Time and frequency measurement
 at NIST: The first 100 years
| year   = 2001
| title  = 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp.
| publisher = National Institute of Standards and Technology
| contribution-url = http://tf.nist.gov/timefreq/general/pdf/1485.pdf
| chapter-format = PDF
}}
Sullivan, D.B. (2001), "Time and frequency measurement at NIST: The first 100 years" (PDF), 2001 IEEE Int'l Frequency Control Symp., National Institute of Standards and Technology 
Lecture
{{Citation
| last   = Habicht
| first  = Christian
| contribution = Hellenistic Athens and her Philosophers
| year   = 1988
| title  = David Magie Lecture, Princeton University Program in the History, Archaeology, and Religions of the Ancient World
| publisher = Princeton University
| page=14 
}}
Habicht, Christian (1988), "Hellenistic Athens and her Philosophers", David Magie Lecture, Princeton University Program in the History, Archaeology, and Religions of the Ancient World, Princeton University, p. 14 

Parts of books, including encyclopedia articles[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Manuscript published in an edited compilation
{{Citation
| last  = Bidamon
| first = Emma Smith
| author-link = Emma Hale Smith
| chapter = Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim
| date = March 27, 1876
| editor-last  = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title  = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1-56085-072-8
}}
Bidamon, Emma Smith (March 27, 1876), "Letter to Emma S. Pilgrim", in Vogel, Dan, Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books (published 1996), ISBN 1-56085-072-8 
Work with an editor but no author
{{Citation
| editor-last  = Vogel
| editor-first = Dan
| title  = Early Mormon Documents
| volume = 1
| publisher = Signature Books
| publication-date = 1996
| isbn = 1-56085-072-8
}}
Vogel, Dan, ed. (1996), Early Mormon Documents, 1, Signature Books, ISBN 1-56085-072-8 
Encyclopedia article by a named author
{{Citation
| last  = Kramer
| first = Martin
| author-link  = Martin Kramer
| year=1999
| title = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last  = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| encyclopedia = Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages  = 719–720
| location = London
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| url = http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm
}}
Kramer, Martin (1999), "Bernard Lewis", in Boyd, Kelley, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720 
Encyclopedia article with no named author
{{Citation
| title = Bernard Lewis
| editor-last = Boyd
| editor-first = Kelley
| year = 1999
| encyclopedia = Encyclopedia of Historians
and Historical Writing
| volume = 1
| pages = 719–720
| publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
| location = London
| url = http://www.geocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm
}}
Boyd, Kelley, ed. (1999), "Bernard Lewis", Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720 

Republications, or edited quotations in a periodical article[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Manuscript edited and published in a journal
{{Citation
| last = Knight
| first = Joseph, Sr.
| year = 1833
| editor-last = Jessee
| editor-first = Dean
| title = Joseph Knight's Recollection
of Early Mormon History
| journal = BYU Studies
| volume = 17
| issue = 1
| publication-date = 1976
| page = 35
| url = https://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/PDFSRC/17.1Jessee.pdf
}}
Knight, Joseph, Sr. (1833), Jessee, Dean, ed., "Joseph Knight's Recollection of Early Mormon History" (PDF), BYU Studies (published 1976), 17 (1): 35 
Manuscript written at one date and place, then published in a periodical at a different date and place with commentary by the editor.
{{Citation
| last = Klingensmith
| first = Philip
| type = Affidavit
| date = September 5, 1872
| place = Lincoln County, Nevada
| title = Mountain Meadows Massacre
| editor-last = Toohy
| editor-first = Dennis J.
| journal = Corinne Daily Reporter
| publication-date = September 24, 1872
| publication-place = Corinne, Utah
| volume = 5
| issue = 252
| page = 1
| url = http://udn.lib.utah.edu/u?/corinne,5359
}}
Klingensmith, Philip (September 5, 1872), written at Lincoln County, Nevada, Toohy, Dennis J., ed., "Mountain Meadows Massacre", Corinne Daily Reporter (Affidavit), Corinne, Utah (published September 24, 1872), 5 (252): 1 

Press release[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Press release with quotation
{{Citation
| url = http://www.apple.com/pr/library/2010/04/05ipad.html
| title = Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day
| publisher = Apple Inc
| accessdate = April 10, 2010
| quote = in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3
| ref = none}}
Apple Sells Over 300,000 iPads First Day, Apple Inc, retrieved April 10, 2010, in the US as of midnight Saturday, April 3 

Citing patents[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Parameters (all are optional)[स्रोत सम्पादन]

{{Citation
| inventor-last =
| inventor-first =
| inventorlink =
| inventor2-last =
| inventor2-first =
| inventorlink2 =
| publication-date =
| issue-date =
| title =
| country-code =
| description =
| patent-number =
| ref =
}}
  • inventor-last (or inventor1-last): The inventor's surname or last name.
  • inventor-first (or inventor1-first): The inventor's first or given name(s).
  • inventorlink (or inventorlink1): Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the first inventor.
  • inventor2-last, inventor3-last, inventor4-last: The second, third, and fourth authors' surname or last name, if applicable.
  • inventor2-first, inventor3-first, inventor4-first: The second, third, and fourth inventors' first or given name(s), if applicable.
  • inventorlink2, inventorlink3, inventorlink4: Title of an existing Wikipedia article about the second, third, and fourth inventor, if applicable.
  • publication-date: Date of publication or filing.
  • issue-date (or date): Date patent was issued by patent agency.
  • title: Title of the patent. If the title includes [square brackets], these must be encoded as "&#91;" for "[" and "&#93;" for "]"
  • country-code: Two-letter abbreviation of the country issuing the patent.
  • description: Type of patent; shown between country code and number.
  • patent-number: The number of the patent.
  • ref: Anchor id.

Examples[स्रोत सम्पादन]

United States patent with multiple inventors
{{Citation
| inventor1-last = Degermark
| inventor1-first = Mikael
| inventor2-last = Brodnik
| inventor2-first = Andrej
| inventor3-last = Carlsson
| inventor3-first = Svante
| inventor4-last = Pink
| inventor4-first = Stephen
| title = Fast routing lookup system
using complete prefix tree, bit vector,
and pointers in a routing table for
determining where to route IP datagrams
| issue-date = 2001
| patent-number = 6266706
| country-code = US}}
ढाँचा:Citation/patent

Anchored citations[स्रोत सम्पादन]

This template can generate a citation that can be combined with shortened footnotes or parenthetical referencing. It does this by creating an HTML anchor containing an ID. The special parameter |ref=harv generates an ID suitable for Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} as specified in the next section; this is the default for the {{citation}} template.

To disable anchor generation, specify |ref=none (in contrast, other Cite templates such as {{cite book}} and {{cite news}} do not create an anchor by default). You can also specify the ID directly, using the |ref=ID parameter. For example, suppose an article's References section contains the markup:

  • {{Citation |author=Sigmund Freud |title=Civilization and Its Discontents |year=1930 |ref=CivDis}}

which generates the citation:

  • Sigmund Freud (1930), Civilization and Its Discontents 

Then, the markup "([[#CivDis|Freud 1930]])" generates a parenthetical reference "(Freud 1930)" containing a wikilink to the citation (try clicking on the wikilink).

Anchors for Harvard referencing templates[स्रोत सम्पादन]

IDs compatible with Harvard referencing templates such as {{harv}} are computed from the last names of the authors and the year of the cited source. For example, the markup "{{harv|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}" generates the Harvard reference "(Wright & Evans 1851, p. ix)", which wikilinks to the citation whose markup and appearance are shown below:

  • {{Citation |last1=Wright |first1=Thomas |last2=Evans |first2=R. H. |title=Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray |location=London |publisher=Henry G. Bohn |year=1851 |oclc=59510372}}
  • Wright, Thomas; Evans, R. H. (1851), Historical and Descriptive Account of the Caricatures of James Gillray, London: Henry G. Bohn, OCLC 59510372 

In this example the {{citation}} template defines, and the {{harv}} template uses, the HTML ID "CITEREFWrightEvans1851", composed by concatenating the string "CITEREF" with the last names of the authors and the year. The {{harvid}} template can be used to generate such IDs, for example, {{harvid|Wright|Evans|1851}} generates "CITEREFWrightEvans1851".

Related methods which leave only a number in the text are to use the {{harvnb}} template enclosed in the <ref></ref> html code, or to use the {{sfn}} template alone. The example above would be <ref>{{harvnb|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}}</ref> or {{sfn|Wright|Evans|1851|p=ix}} both of which generate a footnote, such as

17. Wright & Evans 1851, p. ix

The names of only the first four authors are used; other author names are not concatenated to the ID. If no author names are given, editor names are used instead. For patents, inventor names are used instead of authors or editors. If these names are not given, this template does not generate an anchor.

Last names are used, as specified by the parameters |last1= (or |last=), |last2=, |last3=, and |last4=, and similarly for |editor1-last= etc. and for |inventor1-last= etc. If a full name is given but no last name is specified, this template falls back on the full name, but this usage is not recommended. For example, in "{{Citation | author = Sigmund Freud | title = The Ego and the Id | year = 1923}}" no last name is given, so this citation cannot be combined with the Harvard reference "{{harv|Freud|1923}}". To make these {{citation}} and {{harv}} invocations compatible, either replace "|author=Sigmund Freud" with "|first=Sigmund |last=Freud", or add "|ref={{harvid|Freud|1923}}" to the {{citation}} invocation, or add the same ref parameter (say, "|ref=EgoId") to both the {{citation}} and the {{harv}} invocations.

Similarly, the year is used, as specified by |year=. If no year is given, this template attempts to derive the year from |date= (or, if no date is given, from |publication-date=) by applying the MediaWiki § Time function. This heuristic works with many common date formats (American, International and ISO 8601 standard format YYYY-MM-DD as listed in WP:MOS), but may not work as expected with other formats, so when in doubt it may be safer to use |year=. Note that if only a year, say 2005, is known you must use |year=2005 rather than |date=2005.

IDs must be unique[स्रोत सम्पादन]

Names, years, and hand-specified IDs must be chosen so that the IDs are unique within a page; otherwise the HTML will not conform to the W3C standards, and any references to the citations will not work reliably. For example, suppose a page contains the following two citations with {{harv}}-compatible IDs:

If these citations were altered to say "2008" rather than "2008a" and "2008b", the resulting page would not work, because the two different citations would both attempt to use the ID "CITEREFMontesHalterman2008". To avoid this problem, distinguish the citations by appending suffixes to the years, e.g. "|year=2008a" and "|year=2008b", as was done above. Any Harvard references to these citations should use years with the same suffixes.

It is good practice to verify that a page does not contain duplicate IDs by using the W3C Markup Validation Service; see External links.

Dates[स्रोत सम्पादन]

  1. The format of dates in the references of an article should use consistent and unambiguous styles. Example formats used in Wikipedia citations include: Dates should not be linked (say, to a Wikipedia article of the same name) in references. Please see Wikipedia:Manual of Style (dates and numbers) § Dates for more guidance about formatting dates.

Tools[स्रोत सम्पादन]

See Wikipedia:Citing sources § Citation templates and tools for a list of tools that can help create a reference in the "citation" format.

TemplateData[स्रोत सम्पादन]

This is the TemplateData documentation for this template used by VisualEditor and other tools.

See the monthly error report for this template.

TemplateData for Citation

The Citation template generates a citation for a book, periodical, contribution in a collective work, patent, or a web page. It determines the citation type by examining which parameters are used.

Template parameters

Parameterविवरणप्रकारस्थिति
11

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
22

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
33

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author surnamelast

surname of the author of the cited material

Stringवैकल्पिक
author given namefirst

given name (first name) of the author of the cited material

Stringवैकल्पिक
title of sourcetitle

Title of source; displays in italics.

Stringवैकल्पिक
date of sourcedate

Full date of source being referenced in the same format as other publication dates in the citations.[1] Do not wikilink. Displays after the authors and enclosed in parentheses. If there is no author, then displays after publisher.

Stringवैकल्पिक
url of sourceurl

URL of an online location where the text of the publication can be found.

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor-surnameinventor-surname

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor1-surnameinventor1-surname

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor-lastinventor-last

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor1-lastinventor1-last

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventorinventor

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
invent1invent1

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
invent-1invent-1

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
country-codecountry-code

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor2-surnameinventor2-surname

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor2-lastinventor2-last

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor2inventor2

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
invent2invent2

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor3-surnameinventor3-surname

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor3-lastinventor3-last

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor3inventor3

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
invent3invent3

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor4-surnameinventor4-surname

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor4-lastinventor4-last

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor4inventor4

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
invent4invent4

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor-giveninventor-given

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor1-giveninventor1-given

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor-firstinventor-first

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor1-firstinventor1-first

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor2-giveninventor2-given

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor2-firstinventor2-first

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor3-giveninventor3-given

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor3-firstinventor3-first

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor4-giveninventor4-given

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventor4-firstinventor4-first

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventorlink1inventorlink1

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventorlinkinventorlink

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventorlink2inventorlink2

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventorlink3inventorlink3

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inventorlink4inventorlink4

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
countrycountry

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
publication-numberpublication-number

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
patent-numberpatent-number

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
numbernumber

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
descriptiondescription

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
statusstatus

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
publication-datepublication-date

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
pubdatepubdate

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
issue-dateissue-date

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
gdategdate

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
yearyear

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
fdatefdate

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
pridatepridate

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
assign1assign1

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
assign2assign2

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
refref

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
separatorseparator

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
quotequote

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
postscriptpostscript

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author-separatorauthor-separator

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author-maskauthor-mask

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
authormaskauthormask

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
surnamesurname

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
last1last1

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
surname1surname1

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author1author1

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
authorauthor

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
authorsauthors

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
last2last2

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
surname2surname2

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author2author2

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
last3last3

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
surname3surname3

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author3author3

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
last4last4

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
surname4surname4

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author4author4

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
last5last5

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
surname5surname5

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author5author5

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
last6last6

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
surname6surname6

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author6author6

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
last7last7

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
surname7surname7

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author7author7

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
last8last8

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
surname8surname8

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author8author8

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
last9last9

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
surname9surname9

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author9author9

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
first1first1

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
given1given1

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
givengiven

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
first2first2

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
given2given2

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
first3first3

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
given3given3

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
first4first4

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
given4given4

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
first5first5

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
given5given5

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
first6first6

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
given6given6

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
first7first7

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
given7given7

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
first8first8

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
given8given8

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
first9first9

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
given9given9

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author-linkauthor-link

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author1-linkauthor1-link

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
authorlinkauthorlink

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
authorlink1authorlink1

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author2-linkauthor2-link

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
authorlink2authorlink2

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author3-linkauthor3-link

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
authorlink3authorlink3

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author4-linkauthor4-link

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
authorlink4authorlink4

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author5-linkauthor5-link

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
authorlink5authorlink5

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author6-linkauthor6-link

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
authorlink6authorlink6

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author7-linkauthor7-link

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
authorlink7authorlink7

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author8-linkauthor8-link

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
authorlink8authorlink8

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author9-linkauthor9-link

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
authorlink9authorlink9

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
coauthorcoauthor

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
coauthorscoauthors

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
origyearorigyear

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
monthmonth

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
trans_chaptertrans_chapter

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
trans_titletrans_title

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
typetype

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
archiveurlarchiveurl

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
deadurldeadurl

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
seriesseries

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
versionversion

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
journaljournal

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
periodicalperiodical

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
newspapernewspaper

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
magazinemagazine

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
workwork

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
volumevolume

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
issueissue

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
pagespages

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
pagepage

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
atat

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
noppnopp

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
chapterchapter

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
contributioncontribution

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
chapter-urlchapter-url

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
chapterurlchapterurl

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
contribution-urlcontribution-url

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
chapter-formatchapter-format

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
othersothers

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editionedition

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
placeplace

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
locationlocation

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
publication-placepublication-place

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
publisherpublisher

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor-lasteditor-last

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor-surnameeditor-surname

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor1-lasteditor1-last

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor1-surnameeditor1-surname

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor1editor1

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editoreditor

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editorseditors

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor2-lasteditor2-last

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor2-surnameeditor2-surname

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor2editor2

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor3-lasteditor3-last

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor3-surnameeditor3-surname

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor3editor3

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor4-lasteditor4-last

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor4-surnameeditor4-surname

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor4editor4

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor-firsteditor-first

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor-giveneditor-given

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor1-firsteditor1-first

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor1-giveneditor1-given

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor2-firsteditor2-first

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor2-giveneditor2-given

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor3-firsteditor3-first

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor3-giveneditor3-given

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor4-firsteditor4-first

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor4-giveneditor4-given

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor-linkeditor-link

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor1-linkeditor1-link

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor2-linkeditor2-link

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor3-linkeditor3-link

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
editor4-linkeditor4-link

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
languagelanguage

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
inin

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
formatformat

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
arxivarxiv

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
asinasin

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
ASINASIN

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
asin-tldasin-tld

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
bibcodebibcode

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
doidoi

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
DOIDOI

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
doi_inactivedatedoi_inactivedate

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
doi_brokendatedoi_brokendate

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
isbnisbn

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
ISBNISBN

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
issnissn

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
ISSNISSN

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
jfmjfm

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
JFMJFM

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
jstorjstor

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
JSTORJSTOR

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
lccnlccn

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
LCCNLCCN

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
mrmr

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
MRMR

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
oclcoclc

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
OCLCOCLC

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
olol

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
OLOL

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
ostiosti

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
OSTIOSTI

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
pmcpmc

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
PMCPMC

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
pmidpmid

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
PMIDPMID

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
rfcrfc

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
RFCRFC

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
ssrnssrn

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
SSRNSSRN

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
zblzbl

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
idid

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
IDID

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
access-dateaccess-date

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
accessdateaccessdate

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
laysummarylaysummary

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
laysourcelaysource

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
laydatelaydate

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
author-name-separatorauthor-name-separator

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
lastauthoramplastauthoramp

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
display-authorsdisplay-authors

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
archivedatearchivedate

no description

Stringवैकल्पिक
Translator-firsttranslator-first

no description

Unknownवैकल्पिक
Translator-lasttranslator-last

no description

Unknownवैकल्पिक
Translator2-firsttranslator2-first

no description

Unknownवैकल्पिक
Translator2-lasttranslator2-last

no description

Unknownवैकल्पिक

This template produces COinS metadata; see COinS in Wikipedia for background information.

See also[स्रोत सम्पादन]

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